Integration can take on different forms and needs to be broken down into a series of aspects. It is common to distinguish the modes of multiple integration, assimilation, and segmentation from marginalization and between some major dimensions of integration: the structural, the cultural, the social, and the identification integration, each of them consisting of further sub-dimensions or aspects.
Our project tackles central research questions in each field, starting from the general assumption that it is the complex causal interplay between these different modes and dimensions of integration which needs to be understood much better in order to account for cross-group and cross-country differences in Europe.
The questions about structural integration deal with the success of the youth from different social and ethnic background in the educational and vocational system and assess their aspirations for their further educational and vocational career.
- Social and ethnic background of the family (e.g., country of origin or parental occupational status)
- Currently attended school type
- Educational and occupational aspirations
- Scholastic achievement
To get an insight in the cultural integration of the young people with and without an immigrant background, we measure skills and knowledge specific to the receiving, but also to the sending country.
- Language skills in L1 and L2 (self assessed)
- Language skills in L1 (objective measure)
- Gender roles
- Attitudes towards family & school
To get an as precise picture as possible of the social integration, we will capture the integration in the school classes as well as friendship relations outside of schools. In addition, we will measure formal and informal contacts in different contexts.
- Socio-metric measures of classroom ties
- Ego-centered networks of best friends
- Contact to groups of the own and other ethnic origin in different contexts (e.g., schools, clubs, neighborhood)
- Perceived ethnic composition of neighborhood
Finally, in the section about the identification integration, we will ask the pupils how far the pupils identify with the country they are living in, and how far they accept the norms and values of this country.
- Solidarity with host country
- Identification with own ethnic group
- Values and attitudes towards the integration of minorities
- Return tendencies and return orientations of students with an immigrant background