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Integration can take on different forms and needs to be broken down into a series of aspects. It is common to distinguish the modes of multiple integration, assimilation, and segmentation from marginalization. Furthermore, we distinguish between four major dimensions of integration: Structural, cultural, social, and identification integration, each of which consists of further sub-dimensions or aspects.

Below, we list a selection of measures available in our data for each of these dimensions. Our project addresses key research questions in each subfield, starting from the general assumption that the complex causal interplay between these different modes and dimensions of integration needs to be much better understood in order to explain cross-group and cross-country differences in integration outcomes in Europe.

Structural Integration

The questions about structural integration included in CILS4EU address the success of young people from different social and ethnic backgrounds in the educational and vocational system and assess aspirations for their further educational and vocational career.

  • Social and ethnic background of the family (e.g., country of origin or parental occupational status)
  • Currently attended school type
  • Educational and occupational aspirations
  • Scholastic achievement

Cultural Integration

To get an insight into the cultural integration of young people with and without an immigrant background, we measure skills and knowledge specific to the receiving, but also to the sending country.

  • Language skills in L1 and L2 (self-assessment)
  • Language skills in L1 (objective measure)
  • Gender roles
  • Attitudes towards family & school

Social Integration

To get as precise a picture as possible of social integration, we capture young people's integration in their school classes as well as friendship relations outside of school. In addition, we measure formal and informal contacts in different contexts.

  • Sociometric measures of classroom ties
  • Ego-centered networks of best friends
  • Contact to groups of the own and other ethnic origin in different contexts (e.g., schools, clubs, neighborhood)
  • Perceived ethnic composition of neighborhood

Identification Integration

Finally, in the section about identification integration, we ask respondents how much they identify with the country they are living in, and how accepting they are of the norms and values of that country.

  • Solidarity with host country
  • Identification with own ethnic group
  • Values and attitudes towards the integration of minorities
  • Return tendencies and return orientations of students with an immigrant background


The lists above are only some examples for measures included in the CILS4EU data. A complete overview of the variables contained in the data can be found in the codebooks. You can download the codebooks and other documentation for all available waves here.